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1. Del Birkey, The House Church (Scottdale: Herald Press), 1988.

2. J. S. Semler's conclusion that 2 Corinthians was comprised of at least three separate letters in 1776 no doubt encouraged later interpreters to look into other parts of the Pauline corpus for the same phenomenon. D. N. Freedman, The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992) s.v. "Corinthians, Second Epistle to The," by Hans Dieter Betz, 1:1148.

3. E. Käsemann, G. Bornkamm, and D. Georgi. See Francis Watson, Paul, Judaism and the Gentiles: A Sociological Approach (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 94-105.

4. C. H. Dodd, The Epistlle to the Romans, Moffatt New Testament Commentary (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1932), 148.

5. Peter Lampe, "The Roman Christians of Romans 16," in The Romans Debate, Revised and Expanded ed., Karl P. Donfried (ed.), (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1991), 217. On the unity of Chapters 9-11, see Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Romans, The Anchor Bible (New York: Doubleday, 1993), 539-541.

6. This was the description given by Melanchthon. See Fitzmyer, 74.

7. Del Birkey, 46-48.

8. Paul used the "family" metaphor in Gal. 6:10 and Eph. 3:15.

9. Watson, 98.

10. Bruce Corley, "The Significance of Rom. 9-11: A Study in Pauline Theology," (Ph. D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1975), 214.

11. Fitzmyer, 541.

12. J. Christopher Beker, "Romans 9-11 in the Context of the Early Church," The Princeton Seminary Bulletin 1 (Supp. Issue, 1990), 44.

13. N. T. Wright, The Climax of the Covenant, Fortress Press ed.(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993), 235.

14. Durnbaugh attributes "Believers' Church" to Max Weber--see Donald F. Durnbaugh, The Believers' Church (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1968), ix. The earliest articulations of the concept, however, include Martin Luther (Michael G. Cartwright, ed., "Radical Reform, Radical Catholicity: John Howard Yoder's Vision of the Faithful Church," The Royal Priesthood (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994). Modern authors have used "Free Church," "Radical Reformation," and even "Baptist"--see John Howard Yoder, "A 'Free Church' Perspective on Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry," ibid., 279.

15. Stanley A. Nelson, A Believer's Church Theology (Mariposa: Widow's Mite, 1994).

16. Karl P. Donfried, The Romans Debate, Revised and Expanded Ed. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991), lxix-lxx.

17. Karl P. Donfried, "A Short Note On Romans 16," Journal of Biblical Literature 89 (1970), 446-447.

18. Tacitus described a "vast multitude" who would later be convicted by Nero. Tacitus, Annals 15:44. The Works of Tacitus, The Oxford Translation, Revised (New York: Harper Brothers, 1895), 2:423.

19. Curtis Vaughan and Bruce Corley, Romans: A Study Guide Commentary, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976), 12.

20. C. K. Barrett, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, Harper's New Testament Commentaries (New York: Harper, 1958), 6.

21. Wolfgang Wiefel, "The Jewish Community in Ancient Rome and the Origins of Roman Christianity," in Donfried, The Romans Debate, 92.

22. Donfried, "A Short Note," 444.

23. J. C. Rolfe (tr.), Suetonius, with an English Translation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974.), 2:52-53.

24. Fitzmyer, 77.

25. Willi Marxsen, G. Buswell (tr.), Introduction to the New Testament, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1968), 98-100.

26. F. F. Bruce, "The Romans Debate--Continued," from a lecture delivered in the University of Manchester on November 19, 1981. Donfried, The Romans Debate, 180.

27. Wiefel, 94.

28. Ibid., 98.

29. Donfried, "A Short Note," 445.

30. Harry J. Leon, The Jews of Ancient Rome, The Morris Loeb Series (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1960), 93.

31. Lampe, 224-225.

32. Ibid., 224. See also footnote 157.

33. Andronicus, Junias, and Herodion (16:7 and 11).

34. Birkey, 48.

35. Lampe, 230.

36. The writer thanks Dr. Stanley A. Nelson for this insight, during a conversation with the author. Is it possible that Priscilla and Aquila had the only house church that was "doing it right"?

37. Watson, 102-103.

38. T. W. Manson, "St. Paul's Letter to the Romans--and Others," in Studies in the Gospels and Epistles ed. by M. Black (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1962), 226.

39. Fitzmyer, 87.

40. Johannes Munck, Ingeborg Nixon, (tr.), Christ and Israel, An Interpretation of Romans 9-11 (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1967), 9.

41. Lampe,, 220.

42. Peter Stuhlmacher, "Der Abfassungszweck des Römerbriefes," Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 77 (1986), 189.

43. Augustine Stock, "Chiastic Awareness and Education in Antiquity," Biblical Theology Bulletin 14 (Jan, 1984), 24-25.

44. Daniel C. Fredericks, "Chiasm and Parallel Structure in Qoheleth 5:9-6:9," Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989), 17-35.

45. J. P. Fokkelman, "Genesis," in The Literary Guide to the Bible, eds. Robert Alter and Frank Kermode, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).

46. W. S. Lasor, D. A. Hubbard, and F. Wm. Bush, Old Testament Survey (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982), 312.

47. Ronald E. Man, "The Value of Chiasm for New Testament Interpretation,"Bibliotheca Sacra 141 (Jan-Mar, 1984), 146.

48. Daniel C. Fredericks, "Life's Storms and Structural Unity in Qoheleth 11:1-12:8," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 52 (1991), 95-114.

49. Man, 149.

50. Corley, 96-109.

51. Lloyd Gaston, Paul and the Torah (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987, 144.

52. Rembertus C. M. Ruijs, De Struktuur van de Brief aan de Romeinen (Nijmegen, Dekker & Van De Vegt, 1964.

53. Norbert Lohfink, Kohelet. Die Neue Echter Bibel. (Gesamtherstellung: Fränkische Gesellschaftdruckerei Würzburg, 1980), 10.

54. Joel Rosenberg, "Jeremiah and Ezekiel," in The Literary Guide to the Bible, 190.

55. Stock, 23.

56. Corley, 98.

58. C. f., James W. Aageson, who would locate the "inspirational aspect" of theletter in 9-11. James. W. Aageson, "Scripture and Structure in the Development in Romans 9-11," The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 48 (April, 1986), 288.

60. Fitzmyer, 251.

61. Ibid., 275.

62. This was evidently true in Corinth (1 Cor. 6-11). Also, see Rom. 6:19.

63. Fitzmyer, 275.

64. That Rom. 8:12 is the start of a unit is the view of Käsemann, who sees Rom. 8:12-17 as the a discussion of "Christ as the prototype .. creates new sons for God, i.e., the bearers of the Spirit." Ernst Käsemann, G. W. Bromiley, (tr.), Commentary on Romans (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980), 225. Cranfield, Dunn, Käsemann, Kuss, Murray, Sanday and Headlam, and Schlier also see a section break here" But c.f., Fitzmyer, who makes Rom. 8:12-13the conclusion of the preceding unit and places Rom. 8:14-39 under the rubric "Through the Spirit the Christian Becomes a Child of God" even though references to the Spirit end in Rom. 8:27. Fitzmyer, 492.

65. This is what N. T. Wright calls the "Climax of the Covenant." The author's discussion of this chapter is heavily dependent on Wright's insight. See Wright, 231-235.

66. Alan F. Segal, "Paul's Experience and Romans 9-11," The Princeton Seminary Bulletin 1 (Supp. Issue, 1990), 58.

67. Wiefel, 96.

68. Aageson, 288.

69. James Wm. McClendon, Jr., Systematic Theology, Ethics (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1986), 22-26.

70. Lyle E. Schaller, Assimilating New Members (Nashville: Abingdon, 1978), 23, as cited by Del Birkey, The House Church (Scottdale: Herald Press, 1988), 79.

71. Birkey, 40-54.

72. Birkey articulates the case for plural churches in the cities of Corinth (p. 43) and Colossae (p. 50).

73. Donald F. Durnbaugh, The Believers' Church: The History and Character of Radical Protestantism 2nd ed. (Scottdale: Herald Press, 1968), 39-63.

74. "The Radical Reformation" was coined by George H. Williams in his important work of that title (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962).

75. Durnbaugh, 3.

76. Martin Luther, "The German Mass and Order of Service, Martin Luther's Preface," Ulrich S. Leupold (ed.), Liturgy and Hymns, Vol. 53, Luther's Works, ed. by Helmut T. Lehman (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1965), 63-64. Emphasis mine.

77. Luther had introduced the ideal of the "priesthood of the believer" six years earlier in his Address to the German Nobility (1520). E. G. Schwiebert, Luther and his Times: The Reformation from a New Perspective (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950), 5.

78. Durnbaugh, 4.

79. Stanley Hauerwas and William Willimon, Resident Aliens: Life in the Christian Colony: a Provocative Christian Assessment of Culture and Ministry for People Who Know that Something is Wrong (Nashville : Abingdon Press, 1989).

80. Birkey, 115-118.

81. John Howard Yoder, Michael G. Cartwright (ed.), The Royal Priesthood: Essays Ecclesiological and Ecumenical (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994), 328. Also see McClendon, Jr., Systematic Theology II: Doctrine (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994), 142.

82. The term "adults" is intended as a reference to men and women who have achieved "moral apprehension" in the same way that Jews understood achieving the age of accountablity before God. See Nelson, 130.

83. William L. Lumpkin, Revised ed., Baptist Confessions of Faith (Valley Forge: Judson Press, 1969), 25.

84. Article 31 of the Waterland Confession of 1580. Ibid., 60.

85. Alec Gilmore, Christian Baptism: A Fresh Attempt to Understand the Rite in terms of Scripture, History, and Theolgoy (London: Lutterworth Press, 1959), 75-83.

86. See the book with that name, Martin Jeschke, Believers Baptism for Children of the Church (Scottdale: Herald Press, 1983).

87. Gilmore, 78-79.

88. Ibid., 80.

89. McClendon, Doctrine, 389.

90. Alec Gilmore, (ed.) Christian Baptism (Valley Forge: Judson Press, 1959), 75-83.

91. Fitzmyer, 139, 433-434.

92. "... who believe truly that their sins are taken away by Christ, and to all those who walk in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, and wish to be buried with Him in death, so that they may be resurrected with him....", Lumpkin 25.

93. Justo L. González, A History of Christian Thought, Revised Ed. (Nashville: Abingdon, 1975), 3:92.

94. Henry C. Vedder, A Short History of the Baptists (Valley Forge: Judson Press, 1907), 136. There is evidence, however, that Grebel himself may have performed an immersion baptism of a family as early as May, 1525: Leland Harder, The Sources of Swiss Anabaptism: the Grebel Letters and Related Documents (Scottdale: Herald Press, 1985), 362 and endnote 3 on p. 719.

95. Fitzmyer, 433.

96. Obviously, adopting anachronistic practices based purely on culture is not good Christianity, and the believers' church is occasionally rightly criticized when it adopts practices, such as foot washing, that had origins more in culture than in prophetic symbolism.

97. Fitzmyer, 448-451.

98. Ibid., 445.

99. Birkey, 141.

100. Ibid., 142.

103. John Howard Yoder, "A People in the World: Theological Interpretation," in The Concept of the Believers' Church ed. by James Leo Garrett, Jr. (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1969), 264.

104. The passage of Rom. 13:1-7 is interpreted here as an excursus within ethics of love. See page 48.

105. Fitzmyer, 654.

106. C.f., Ibid., 678.

108. Fitzmyer., 656.

109. Ibid., 687.

110. Käsemann, 368.

111. He does rally to the side of the weak in Rom. 14:1, but his interference is not doctrinal. He only argues for their acceptance.

112. S. A. Nelson, 65.

113. G. H. Williams, The Radical Reformation, Third Ed., Sixteenth Century Essays & Studies, Vol. 15 (Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, Inc., 1992), 288.

114. Lumpkin, 23.

115. Michael Sattler, "Letter to the Church at Horb," 1527, Legacy, 59-60, quoted in Anabaptism in Outline: Selected Primary Sources ed. By. Walter Klaassen, Scottdale: Herald Press, 1981), 103-104. That Sattler's use of 1 Cor. 13 in this way is appropriate may be seen in the position of that text in 1 Corinthians between two chapters having to do with spiritual gifting and order within the body of a church that was also having difficulty achieving a truly corporate ethic.

116. McClendon, Ethics, 28.

117. Hauerwas and Willimon, Resident Aliens, 78.

119. Fitzmyer, 664.

120. Mt. 22:21.

121. John Howard Yoder, The Politics of Jesus (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972), 197.

122. McClendon, Ethics, 309-310.

123. Fitzmyer, 662.

124. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship. Revised and Unabridged Ed. (New York: Collier Books, 1959), 294. Translated from Nachfolge by R. H. Fuller.

125. John Howard Yoder, Politics of Jesus, 199.

126. Yoder's theme for the whole of Rom. 12:1-13:10. See page 50.

127. Isa. 53:7, NIV.

128. Fitzmyer, 662.

129. "The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus," Chapter 5. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (eds.), The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950), 1:26.

130. Phil. 3:20.

131. Stanley Hauerwas and William H. Willimon, Resident Aliens: Life in the Christian Colony (Nashville: Abingdon, 1989)., 48.

132. McClendon, Doctrine, 365.

133. Käsemann, 332-333.

134. Fitzmyer, 644-651.

135. Käsemann titles the section, "Advice for Charismatics who stand out," 331-342.

136. McClendon, Doctrine, 370.

137. Ibid.

138. Birkey, 104-110.

139. Ibid., 108.

140. Ibid., 110.

141. Ibid., 113.

142. Ibid., 114.

143. C. H. Dodd, Third edition, The Parables of the Kingdom (London : Nisbet, 1936).

144. S. A. Nelson, 179.

145. R. H. Fuller, The Mission and Achievement of Jesus: An Examination of the Presuppositions of New Testament Theology (London: SCM Press, Ltd., 1954), 77.

146. Ibid., 119-121.

147. Article XXXIII, Lumpkin, 165.

148. Hauerwas and Willimon, 46, emphasis mine.

150. Vernard Eller, The Outward Bound: Caravaning as the Style of the Church(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980), 13-14, as quoted in Birkey, 119.

151. McClendon, Doctrine, 365.

152. Ibid., 366.

155. Fitzmyer, 434.

156. Compare Rom. 6:5, ("grown-together") and Rom. 11:17, ("graft into") are identical ideas, conveying the sharing of life-giving sap from the rootstock. Also, Fitzmyer writes, "As for baptized Gentile converts to Christianity, Paul thinks of them as branches of a wild olive tree grafted into the cultivated olive tree that is Israel (Rom. 11:17). This is but another way in which Paul regards the unity of Gentile and Jewish Christians in the "one body." Fitzmyer, 140.

157. Wright argues that "all Israel shall be saved" is not a reference to the present non-believing Jews, but to the remnant of believing Jews (such as those in the Roman churches) who will expand through a process of "'jealousy' and consequent faith." Wright, 250.

158. Adopted from Robert Friedmann, The Theology of Anabaptism, Studies in Anabaptist and Mennonite History (Scottdale, Herald Press, 1973), 81.

159. Arndt and Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of The New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Second Ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959), 559, 1a and 1b.

160. Fitzmyer, 702.

161. Paul uses a series of participles as imperatives in Rom. 12:9f and Rom. 12:16f. A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research(Nashville: Broadman Press, 1934), 946.

162. Fitzmyer, 703.

164. Birkey, passim.

165. Fitzmyer, 139, emphasis mine.

166. N. T. Wright, passim.

167. Fitzmyer., 74.

168. Ibid., emphasis mine.

169. Birkey, 48.

170. Leon's study and conclusions were limited to Roman Jews.

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